Water Resource Vision 2045
To achieve the objective of sustainable development of water resources
and optimum utilisation of this scarce and precious natural resources our
vision for the year 2045 regarding water sector is :
- Make Rajasthan the foremost in management of water resources.
- Harness all the (16.05 BCM) economically utilisable surface water
through improved planning, design and construction.
- Full utilisation of created irrigation potential and maximum crop
production per unit of water.
- Water conservation in all sectors by optimum utilisation, use of
water saving devices and improved practices.
- Comprehensive and integrated planning for surface and groundwater
resources including conjunctive use sustainability and maintaining
- Environmentally sustainable water resources development, proper
treatment and reuse of sewage and industrial effluents and mitigation of
environment degradation i.e. water logging and salinity.
- Financially sustainable development of water resources with pricing
structure to reflect scarcity value of water and encourage water
- Effective drought and flood control management
- Participation of users in development and management of water
- Efficient and adequate human resources development, institutional
infrastructure and legal support for adopting new technologies/practices and
- Effective management to complete projects with no cost and time
overrun and to ensure quality.
- Active private sector participation and management and development
of water resource projects.
Water Resources VISION 2045
Present Status of Development and Challenges for Water Sector
Objective of Water Resource Vision 2045
Critical Review of Earlier Policies
Major Thrust Areas of State Water Policy, Actions Initiated and Future
Water is universally accepted as a symbol of life as it is the most
crucial for maintaining an environment and ecosystem conducive to
sustaining all forms of life. It plays a vital role not only in fulfilling
basic human need for life and health but in socio-economic development
also. The demands for drinking, domestic activities, livestock,
agriculture, industries, power generation and other uses are all
increasing to meet the requirements of increasing population and also to
cater for the enhanced per capita requirement due to rise in living
standard. Irrigation, the largest water user sector, is feeling the pressure
of increasing demands of other user sectors all over the world because of
limited fresh water availability. On the other hand the need to increase
agricultural production, for which also water is the most critical input,
to meet the food and fiber requirement of increasing population is equally
The available surface and ground water resources, part of a larger
ecological system, are renewable but limited. India has 16% of the world
population where as the water resources are only 4%. Even with all the
planning and development, at the end of the 20th century, the country has
not even been able to provide safe drinking water to all. The water sector
is facing a number of challenges regarding availability, accessibility,
use and sustainability of its fresh water resources.
Further, the distribution of water in the country is highly uneven over
space and time. Unfortunately Rajasthan is the driest state in the country
and is water scarce (having per capita water availability below 1000
m3/year) since 1991. Figure-1 depicts the comparative statistics of the
State and the country which highlights the precarious situation the
state has to face regarding water availability. With prevailing high
growth rate of population the per capita water availability is going to
further reduce to alarmingly low levels implying that the challenges for
water sector are much more and severe in the State.
Present Status of Development and Challenges for Water
The importance of water in the State was recognised even during the pre
independence period and the old tradition of water conservation and
harvesting is reflected in numerous old structures like Tankas, Khadins,
Johads, Bawaries etc. Irrigation facilities were limited at the time of
independence, and there were 1 major, 43 medium and 2272 minor projects in
the State with irrigation potential of only 4 lac ha. After independence
special impetus was given to development of water resources as can be seen
from Plate-3 showing development of irrigation in the State. At present
there are 104 major and medium irrigation projects and 4786 minor
irrigation projects in the State and the irrigation potential created has
increased to 28.12 lac ha.
Thus, substantial development in water resources sector, considering the
financial, geographical and hydrological constraints, has been made and the
irrigation potential created has increased by more than 7 times to 5.64 %
of the country's total potential as against 2.46 % at the time of
independence. But in spite of this it has not been possible to keep pace
with population growth, increasing requirements, and technological
changes. Some of the main challenges being faced by the water sector, as
listed below, clearly indicate that a lot more is to be done for
integrated water resources development and management.
- Inadequate availability of water for meeting demands of all sectors
and uneven temporal and spatial distribution of water.
- Harnessing of remaining 40 % of internal surface water resources.
- Inadequate maintenance resulting in deteriorated condition and low
efficiencies of existing water supply projects.
- Financial constraints for implementing new projects and for adequate
maintenance of existing facilities.
- Inefficient management and reluctance to adopt modern water saving
technologies, like pressure irrigation / volumetric measurement / leak
detection and control, by developers and users both.
- Ensuring effective groundwater control and management and also
conjunctive use of surface and groundwater.
- Environmental sustainability and mitigating environmental
degradation in terms of water logging and salinity and deteriorating
quality of water due to pollution and over exploitation of groundwater.
- Resettlement and rehabilitation problem of displaced population due
to implementation of water resources projects.
- Financially non sustainable water rates.
- Recurring droughts and effective drought management.
- Inadequate institutional infrastructure and human resource
development for adopting new technologies and innovative approach.
- Inculcating participatory approach in development and management of
- Inter-sectoral coordination.
Objective of Water Resource Vision 2045
To face these challenges successfully and for integrated water resources
development and its optimum utilisation radical changes in approach,
planning and technology after a critical review of earlier and existing
policies is needed. The State of Rajasthan has adopted the State Water
Policy in 1999 to address the problems facing the water sector supported
by a long term State Water Plan with planning horizon extending up-to the
year 2045. has also been formulated.
Water Resource Vision 2045 has been prepared to highlight the short term
(upto 2015) and long term (upto-2045) thrust areas and action plan which
are pre-requisites for successful implementation of the State Water Policy
and Plan and achieving the objective of optimum use of every drop of
scarce and precious utilisable water resource. It is also envisaged that
its periodical review and evaluation would help timely
refinement/modification of the policy, thrust areas and the action plan to
achieve the objectives of the State Water Policy.
There are 14 defined river basins in the State but Chambal and Mahi are
the only perennial rivers. 'Aravali' mountain range divides the state into
two distinct physiographies i.e. Eastern & Western Rajasthan. The area
West of Aravali, mainly forms part of the Great Thar Desert" with
average rainfall of 318.7 mm (designated as basin no. 15). The Eastern
part is comparatively humid and rainfall ranges between 400 to 1000 mm
(average 688.7 mm). The average rainfall for the State is about 570 mm.
The river basins and the rain isohytel lines are shown in Plate 1.
The State Water Resources Plan has been prepared on scientific
basis using the data available up-to the year 1993.
According to the simulation studies carried out for each basin the total
internal surface water resources in the State have been estimated as 21.71
BCM (17.6 MAF) at 50% dependability as against 19.56 BCM (15.86 MAF)
estimated earlier. The water availability at 75% dependability is only
14.12 BCM (11.45 MAF). However, the economically utilisable surface
water as per present situation at 50% dependability is estimated as 16.05
BCM (13.02 MAF). Apart from this, the total external surface water
resources from other States, under various inter-state agreements, are
17.88 BCM (14.5 MAF). It has been assessed that mean annual natural
replenishable ground water is 7.413 BCM ( 6.01 MAF) and total 10.09 BCM (
8.18 MAF) of ground water including return flows from irrigated areas,
urban and other water utilisation sectors is available in the State.
Estimating future demands is of prime importance for any planning effort.
The study got carried out for State Water Plan has projected the non
agricultural demands of water to increase from 3.29 BCM (2.66 MAF)/year
(at 1995 level) to 5.05 BCM(4.09 MAF) in the year 2015 and 8.07 BCM(6.541
MAF)/year in the year 2045. If all the 136 Lac ha of irrigable land is
irrigated the agricultural water requirement will be about 100 BCM (81.07
MAF), which obviously is not available. Considering the water availability
and proposed projects irrigation in 51.25 lac ha. of CCA has been planned
and proposed in the State Water Plan.
The actually irrigated area may fall short of total CCA and the
potentially irrigable area (assessed at 25% dependability) may be only
46.63 lac ha. This is subjected to implementation of the State Water Plan
which envisages implementation of all possible water resources development
plans, conjunctive use of surface and ground water, optimum efficiency for
utilization of water by all sectors by the year 2045.
Critical Review of Earlier Policies
Planning and policy formulation is a dynamic process and for any policy
to be successful a regular review and timely refinement/modification is
necessary. At the time of independence the existence of water resources
sector infrastructure was negligible and there were very few major or
large size water resources development projects. Therefore, the main
thrust of the policy makers in the post independence era was towards
construction of new projects and facilities. The water rates were highly
subsidised during that period as increasing agricultural production for
self reliance was the main target. But in quest for creating more and more
facilities of large size, the consolidation of created facilities by
proper maintenance and management and through smaller water harvesting
structures got neglected. Further, the Water Resources Development
Departments' main job centered around construction of new projects.
The increased food production as a result of green revolution in
seventies probably made the planners complacent and the allocation to
irrigation sector gradually reduced to such an extent that on one side the
project completion periods started increasing, resulting in high cost and
time over runs and on the other side the maintenance of existing
facilities started getting deferred due to non availability of
funds. In eighties the gap between the potential created and
utilised, widened. The deteriorated condition of facilities created got
noticed and drew attention of planners. The thrust area of planning changed
and shifted to modernisation and rehabilitation of project. But this shift
also neglected the basic concept of management and involvement of users
and the activities more or less revolved around construction activities
renovation and lining of distribution systems.
The environmental and financial sustainability of the water resources was
not given its due importance. Thus, it is evident that the review and
evaluation of results were not given priority and the reaction time was
too long for refinement and modification of the policy. In 1987 the
National Water Policy addressing most of the problems of water sector was
declared but again its percolation to the States took long time
delaying its implementation. The problems being faced by the water
sector in the country as a whole and the State of Rajasthan in particular
clearly indicate that a radical change in policy and implementation
methodology was required.
The State of Rajasthan adopted the National Water Policy in December,
1989 and soon after the process of Study for preparation of State Water
Policy and Plan was started and was commissioned in the year 1994.
Major Thrust Areas of State Water Policy, Actions Initiated and
Future Action Plan
The Government of Rajasthan has recently adopted the State Water Policy,
keeping in view the provisions contained in the National Water Policy and
the specific conditions and problems of the State. The policy addresses
all the issues for maximum development and optimum utilisation of scarce
water resources in the State. The problems being faced by the State and
the future scenario with a long term vision up-to 2045 - emphasises
the need of time-bound action plan for successful implementation of the
State Water Policy and the Plan. The plan is based on some
assumptions/projections regarding the development of water resources and
the utilisation efficiencies. Some important projections assumptions and
results of the study at the four planning stages are presented in Plate-4.
An analysis of these clearly shows that a lot has to be achieved in the
next 45 years e.g. the surface water utilisation has to be increased by 60%
from present utilisation of about 10 BCM, distribution system efficiency
has to be increased to 74% from present estimated efficiency of 54%,
average on-farm irrigation efficiency has to be significantly increased to
about 70% from present estimated efficiency of below 27 %.
If we fail to implement the plan in terms of water resources development
and management, the non-agricultural water demands, which are related to
population and to some extent industrial growth, expected to more than
double in the next 45 years, will have to be first fulfilled which will
reduce the irrigation water availability and the irrigation in projected
area will not be achieved and may significantly reduce. If a hypothetical
assumption of present state of development and management to continue is
made than in the year 2045 the present irrigated area will further reduce
by 28 % where as the population would increase by 88%. It also highlights
the needs of sustainability of water resources, especially the water
quality, to meet the future drinking water and irrigation
A concise summary of the thrust areas of the State Water Policy and Plan
to mitigate and/or solve the main water resources development and
management problems in Rajasthan, actions initiated and proposed action
plan is as follows:
6.1 Water Availability and Demand
The projections of availability of water and the demands of different
water user sectors is the basic requirement of water resources planning
process. The first step of making a scientific and rational projection of
water availability, both surface and ground, has been taken by the State
through preparation of State Water Plan and following future actions will
The water availability projections, though made using modern and
scientific technology, are based on available data and certain
assumptions. It will be ensured that all the data is regularly updated
The demand estimates are based on population projections and other
rational and logical assumptions of demand growth which will also be
reviewed and refined regularly.
The work of further refining the assessment of water resources and
demands and the State Water Plan will be done periodically by the multi
disciplinary specialised and adequately trained State planning
organisation proposed to be created for integrated planning of water
resources, inter sectoral allocation and implementation of State Water
Policy. First refinement will be completed by end of the year 2005.
Subsequent refinements and updating of State Water Plan will be carried
out every 10 years i.e in the years 2015 and 2025.
Detailed review and revision of the plan will be done in the year 2035
and finally preparation of a revised State Water Plan for next 50 years
will be commenced in the year 2043 to be completed by the year 2045.
Effciency of Water Supply and Use
It is an unpleasant truth that water availability in the State is limited
and inadequate emphasising that optimum utilization of water is equally or
even more important than development of water resources. Even after a
hypothetical consideration that all utilisable water resources are
developed, Rajasthan is still a water scarce state, according to the
international classification, as the annual per capita availability of
water in the state is only 857 m3 (below 1000 m3). However, if only
harnessed water is considered the per capita availability is only 600 m3.
Further, with increasing population the scarcity will go on increasing and
the per capita water availability in the State will be as low as 457
m3 by year 2045. In the year 2045 even with all the development and
increase in efficiency envisaged in the plan, after meeting the non-
agricultural demands, water would be available to irrigate only about 46 lac
ha out of total irrigable area of 136 lac ha (only 30%). In less than
normal rainfall years the situation would be much more critical. This
emphasises the need of giving highest priority to increase efficiency of
water use and supply both. The main thrust areas of action and the future
action plan is as under :
Participatory Approach in rehabilitation and modernisation of existing
projects and their future maintenance and management
Participatory Irrigation Management is one of the most important concept
for future which will go a long way in improving the efficiency and
management of the irrigation systems.
There is vast scope of increasing the efficiency, of existing irrigation
projects both on and off farm, which can not be achieved without the active
participation of end users. This aspect is being given due attention and
WUAs on pilot basis have been formed on number of projects by the
Irrigation Department and Command Area Development & Water Utilisation
Department. In proposed Rajasthan Water Sector Restructuring Project
(RWSRP), this is one of the most crucial and important component. The
following further actions are envisaged.
Rajasthan Farmers Participation in Management of Irrigation System"
Act and Rules for formation and functioning of Farmers' Organisation (FOs)
will be enacted by end of the year 2000.
A massive awareness and communication programme to disseminate
information, to educate and to create public support for formation of
Farmer's Organisations will be designed and implemented by March 2001.
The Farmer's Organisations, at least in the 5 lac ha area to be covered
by RWSRP will be formed before end of the year 2001 out of total irrigated
area of 28.1 lac ha.
By the year 2005 the Farmers oganisations in remaining irrigated areas
will be formed.
Efforts will be made to create autonomous Appex Committees at district
level to fully takeover the irrigation projects. Pilot projects for it
will be taken up after completion of the proposed RWSRP in some selected
projects on basis of performance of the Farmers Organisations formed.
Rehabilitation and Modernisation of Existing
The rehabilitation and modernisation of existing projects is being given
priority to improve the hydraulic flow conditions and to reduce losses to
achieve the designed efficiency of water distribution. Principally lining of
existing canals in projects will be proposed only after a critical
examination of the proposal and other alternative of conjunctive use. More
stress will be given to bring back the canal system to its designed
parameters and efficiency with minimum possible investment. The
participation of beneficiary farmers, which is essential for its success,
will be made obligatory. The proposed RWSRP is the first major step in
this direction under which rehabilitation and modernisation of 94 major,
medium and minor projects covering 5 lac ha. Total 2 lac farmers will
benefit and additional 80 thousand ha is envisaged to be irrigated
annually. The future action plan consists of:
The preparation, appraisal and sanction of RWSRP will be the top priority
and concerted efforts will be made to get it sanctioned from the World
Bank by end of the financial year 2000-2001.
Timely implementation of the project and better quality of work will be
ensured by rigorous monitoring using modern techniques, equipment and
software, institutional support and exercising effective
The canal systems of the projects under RWSRP or part there-of will be
maintained by the FOs . Since beginning coordination and association of the
department officials and the FOs will be fostered to ensure that the
systems are maintained properly and the requirement for rehabilitation of
the system is not repeated in future and optimum distribution efficiency
Prioritisation of remaining rehabilitation and modernisation projects
identified in the State Plan will be reviewed and the project profiles with
required investment and benefits will be finalised by the year 2005 for
Improvement in Water Use Efficiencies
Low efficiency of water utilisation is prevalent in the agricultural as
well as the domestic and industrial water consumption sectors also. High
priority should be given to the introduction of water saving devices and
practices. Agriculture sector is the largest water user sector using more
than 90% of the water and it is assessed that the present efficiency of
utilisation in medium and minor surface water irrigation project commands
is less than 30%. With modern irrigation techniques like sprinkler and
drip, which have efficiencies as high as 70-75% and above 90%
respectively, the over all efficiency can be easily increased
significantly. The action plan for increasing field application efficiency
is as under:
To educate the public about scarce availability, dangers to its
sustainability and other water related issues, awareness and communication
programme through print and electronic media will be designed and
implemented by end of Year 2001. The stress will be for optimum
utilisation of every drop of available water for achieving maximum benefit
and also to conserve water for our children and future generations.
Scientific water management, farm practices and sprinkler and drip system
of irrigation will be encouraged. Intensive agriculture extension
programme will be launched in collaboration with agriculture department
through the FOs formed in the area covered by RWSRP in the first phase
with a target to have sprinkler or drip irrigation in at least 0.5 lac ha
out of total command area of 5 lac ha before completion of the
Intensive extension programme will be extended through the FOs formed in
the remaining command areas in the next phase with a target to have
sprinkler or drip irrigation in at least 0.2 lac ha additional area every
year to achieve a target of having pressure irrigation in at least 20% of
the irrigated area in the State by the year 2045.
An expert committee will be formed to examine and submit report by end of
2005 (when many FOs would be in position and significant area would be
under pressure irrigation) about the possibility and ways of making
pressure irrigation compulsory by delivering water in field ponds or at
least finding ways to encourage it by incentives/subsidies or by according
preference in taking up a project on priority.
Based on recommendations of this committee action about drip and
sprinkler irrigation in future new projects will be decided and
Deficit Irrigation is another method which can be adopted where water
availability is low as even with marginal reduction in the yield per unit
area, the total yield and profits are higher as more area are covered. In
agriculture sector the aim has to be to maximise yields per unit of water.
The concept of deficit irrigation i.e. intentionally providing
predetermined less quantity of water than the total requirement of that
particular crop, introduced and used in the State Water Plan, will be
further developed, studied and researched for maximizing agricultural
production per unit of water.
6.3 Maximum Development of Surface Water
As 80-90% of rainfall occurs in 3 monsoon months and the variation
is so large that only 16.05 BCM ( 13.02 MAF) out of the total 21.71 BCM (
17.6 MAF) surface water resources are economically utilisable in the
present situation. 10.09 BCM (8.19 MAF) of surface water has already been
harnessed by existing projects, and 1.85 BCM (1.5 MAF) is expected to be
harnessed by ongoing schemes. For utilising the balance 4.11 BCM (3.33
MAF) 50 major and medium and 4557 minor projects have been identified in
the State Water Plan and following future action plan will be followed for
Prioritisation of Development Plans
The prioritisation criteria developed in State Plan for different
types of projects will be reviewed and finalised by end of the year 2000
after giving due weight/consideration to areas where water availability is
in excess of the storage capacities already created. Project reports and
detailed design of all the proposed projects in the State Water Plan will
be prepared by the year 2010 in a phased manner. Presuming
that all the development plans have to be implemented by 2045 a tentative
programme for implementation will be prepared for project construction.
Project Planning, Preparation and Implementation
The preparation of feasibility and detailed project reports for new
development projects will be so planned that at any time after the year 2005
there will be projects ready for possible implementation in next 5 years.
In future projects following additional concepts will invariably be
Drainage to be integral part of the project for preventing rise in water
Conjunctive use of surface and ground to be planned from the beginning
and computing the water requirement accordingly.
Drinking water requirement of the command and nearby area to be
considered and reserved wherever required.
Minimum flow downstream of storage project to be ensured.
Comprehensive watershed management, including afforestation and soil
conservation in basins where the flow regime has not stablised
to be considered for reducing siltation of dams and flow peaks.
Pressure irrigation in reasonable percentage of area to be decided for
each project separately will be considered since beginning to compute the
water requirement and irrigation intensity.
Implementation programme of projects will be based on principals of
completion of ongoing projects first, selection of new projects with assured
funding and time bound construction only instead of thin spreading of
finances. Detailed investigation and designs in advance, to avoid delay
and quality assurance for safe structures, will be given due
Inter-basin Water Transfer Projects
The water planning should be above all geographical boundaries for
overall welfare of the country as recognised in the National Water Policy.
Rajasthan is a state which has to depend on water from other outside state
basins and is striving hard to get share in surplus water in other outside
state basins for which more efforts will be made. Special attention will
be given to get a share in the surplus Ganga waters for which the State
has presented a requirement of 45.8 BCM (37.14 MAF) for providing
irrigation to a CCA of 41.5 lac ha.
The suggestion of State Plan for exchanging of surplus water
flowing out of the state because of its being at lower levels with water
available in other states at a higher elevation will be discussed and
negotiated with the concerned states.
Planning and implementation of Inter-basin transfer projects within the
state from surplus Chambal basin to Banas and from Mahi and Sabarmati
basins to Luni Basin will be taken up on priority and the feasibility
studies will be completed by the year 2005.
Traditional Rainwater Harvesting and Conservation
The concept of water conservation/harvesting being practiced since ages
in form of Tankas in the homes, Bawaries in the mohallas, Khadins ,
Johads and Tank in every village for storage of the precious water for
drinking as well as agriculture purposes will be revived and encouraged.
Special attention to it is being given and the more efforts for continuing
the process and mobilisation of funds will be made. Possibility of
participation of NGOs and private sector will also be explored and
Utilisation of Treated Waste Water
Uncontrolled wastewater disposal from urban and industrial centers is a
waste of reusable water and also poses a serious health hazard and an
environmental nuisance. Plans will be prepared for the utilisation of
treated sewage, which is the most reliable source of water, for irrigation
of non-edible crops. The recycling of treated water in industries and its
treatment to the desired level so as not to affect quality of water will
be ensured through vigilance, monitoring of water quality and co-
ordination with State Pollution Control Board. Special attention will be
given to cities and towns where industrial growth is significant like
Pali, Bhilwara, Balotra, Udaipur, Kota etc.
6.4 Management and Control of Groundwater
It has been assessed that mean annual natural replenishable ground water
is 7.41 BCM (6.01 MAF) against which the utilization /drawl is 10.79 BCM
(8.756 MAF). Though total 10.09 BCM (8.18 MAF) of ground water including
return flows from irrigated areas, urban and other water utilisation
sectors is available but still the exploitation is highly imbalanced. In
some areas, specially in irrigation project commands, the water table is
rising and even causing water logging. Simultaneously in other areas the
water table is falling and threatening the groundwater quality. Out of
total 31 districts in the State 3 are in critical category, 5 are in semi
-critical category and 3 fall in over exploited category. Thus there is
immediate need to control over exploitation of groundwater in dark and
gray zones and to increase abstraction in areas where water table is
rising through legislation or incentives/disincentives. The proposed
legislation regarding groundwater utilisation is under consideration of
the Government and needs to be ratified and implemented as soon as possible.
In addition following actions are envisaged.
To educate the public about situation of groundwater and
implications of continuing such uncontrolled exploitation and to explain
the need to manage it for its sustainability. A mass awareness and
communication programme through print / electronic or any other
media will be designed and implemented by end of Year 2001. Special
attention will be given to areas identified under critical, semi-critical
and over exploited categories in close coordination with the Rajasthan
Ground Water Department (RGWD).
Efforts will be made to develop control of society on groundwater
abstraction and management for safe-guarding their own interest and
future. In commands of irrigation projects the FOs can be the social group
for this purpose. This approach will be followed in RWSRP.
Conjunctive use of ground and surface water in canal command areas needs
to be practiced to prevent water-logging of productive lands and also for
sustainability of groundwater. Institutional coordination and involvement
of farming communities is a prerequisite for its success. It will also be
taken up first in RWSRP in coordination with the RGWD to be followed in
other command areas as per programme for formation of FOs.
Artificial recharge of ground water through all possible methods, to be
identified for different areas where groundwater is being overexploited in
collaboration with RGWD by 2002 based on the State Water Plan and other
studies carried out, will be taken up on priority.
6.5 Creation and Development of Data Base and Information
The data base developed for the State Water Plan should become the
central data storage, retrieval and processing tool for Rajasthan water
sector. It should be updated, upgraded, expanded and should be made easily
accessible to all users and planners through a scientifically designed
Management Information System (MIS). Standard coding and classification
will be used for convenient exchange of data.
A study for modernisation of the hydro-meteorological observation was
conducted and its recommendations for installation of necessary modern
equipment are under implementation. The data collected, transmitted and
stored in the database and will be analyzed and used to upgrade the water
availability estimates and re-calibration of models etc.
A study for creating a modern and efficient MIS has been conducted and
implementation of the system will be made one of the project component of
6.6 Financial Management and Sustainability
The limited financial resources of the State, reducing allocation to
irrigation sector, increasing establishment cost, price escalation,
increasing fund requirements for O&M of enhanced facilities etc. have
not allowed to take up new projects as per programme and plan. This has
resulted in cost and time over-run of projects and also delayed the
As per the preliminary estimates of State Water Plan about Rs 10500
crores is required for improvement of existing projects and construction
of planned projects. Another Rs 4500 crores would be required for inter
basin transfer projects. For completion of ongoing projects also about Rs.
8484 crores (including IGNP & CAD) would be required. Thus, the total
requirement of funds, for irrigation sector including irrigation, IGNP and
CAD in next 45 years, for completing all developments by the year 2045 as
envisaged in the State Plan, works out to about Rs 522 Crores per year. In
addition the present O&M requirement, though not being provided, is
also about 140 crores per year. Mobilisation of such large resources is a
challenge for which following action plan will be followed:
Financial Resources, within the country, are being mobilised for
implementation of new water resources development plans through NABARD in
addition to the State's own resources and various GOI programmes. Presently
about Rs. 200 crores per year is being mobilised through NABARD and efforts
will be made to increase it to about Rs. 300 crores per year.
Mobilisation of funds is also being tried to be arranged from
international financial institutions and development agencies like World
Bank, KFW, EEC, OECF and SIDA. Rs 100 crore Dam Safety Phase II Project
and Rs 2000 crores RWSRP have been agreed for funding by the World Bank
and are in advance stage of preparation. All efforts will be made to get
these cleared by the year 2001. Efforts will be made to mobilise funds
from other agencies.
The Nohar Sidhmukh Project, costing Rs. 170 crores, is being financed by
the EEC. Construction of Sidhmukh & Ratanpura Distributory has been
sanctioned with financing from NABARD. Efforts for similar joint funding
will be made for other possible projects in the area.
Phase II of the Minor Irrigation Project, costing Rs. 65 crores, by KFW
assistance is under consideration and will be rigorously pursued.
There are other big projects like Narmada, Gang Canal Modernisation,
Rajasthan Minor Irrigation Project for which financial resources will have
to be mobilised / tied up. Special efforts for it will be made.
Private sector participation in development of water resources will have
to be encouraged and ensured for long term financial sustainability of the
water sector. This has to start with water treatment, drinking water
and/or irrigation projects or part of big projects. A theme paper will be
prepared and strategy for private sector partition will be developed by
the year 2001.
Increasing water rates, handing over part of the system to FOs and
reducing cost of O&M by increasing efficiency of the department will
be simultaneously attempted for O&M funding.
It is targeted that by the year 2010 the State will not have to bear any
cost of O&M of the facilities created, except the head-works or large
size main canals/feeders. The water rates have been too low and highly
subsidised since long. Though the water rates have been doubled recently
but these are still inadequate and do not reflect the economic price and
the scarcity value of water. There is also no incentive for efficient use
of water in the present price structure and also there is no linkage of
cost recovery with quality of service. A thorough revision of current
rates, at least to cover the O&M cost, and linking the cost recovery
with quality of service (by ensuring that the water charges collected are
used for improvement of that system only) is a high priority
prerequisite to the improvement of the overall performance of both the
agricultural and the urban water sectors. The water rates to achieve the
target of at least recovering the O&M cost of irrigation facilities will
be gradually / periodically enhanced.
Charging for water on volumetric basis and progressively increasing water
rates (for volume of water per ha of irrigated area) to encourage
efficient use of water is the ultimate aim for which concerted efforts
will be made. Initially the FOs formed will be supplied water on a
volumetric basis and than gradually the pricing structure will be changed.
6.7 Environmentally Sustainable Development of water
Like any human activity, water projects also have both beneficial and
detrimental effects on environment. A State level sectoral environment
assessment for assessing the positive and negative impacts of the water
resources development projects has been done. The need is to mitigate the
problems identified and to develop future water resources with least social
and environmental disturbance. Regular monitoring and review is equally
important for environmental sustainability. The following actions will be
taken for environmental sustainability.
In preparation of new development plans special attention will be paid to
environmental considerations and the alternative with minimum
environmental and social disturbance will be selected for
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) at the time of planning of projects
and detailed Environmental Management Plan (EMP) at the time of taking up
of a project to mitigate the negative impacts will be prepared and
The drainage of command area and ensuring minimum flow downstream will be
made obligatory for future projects.
A comprehensive Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy for persons
displaced due to water resources development projects will be adopted by
the end of year 2000.
The major environmental problems identified are water logging and / or
salinity in some parts of IGNP / Gang/ Bhakra areas and depletion of ground
water resources in areas downstream of dam sites. Plan to mitigate these
problems will be prepared and implemented.
Internal project level environmental assessment and monitoring for larger
projects will be regularly done and a report will be published every five
6.8 Institutional and Legal Support
Many of the proposed activities and recommendations of the State Water
Plan are new and unconventional. These also involve modern technologies
and sometime may require innovative approach. Therefore adequate
institutional and legal support for implementation will be required. A
study for institutional strengthening was conducted and action for its
implementation has been initiated. Institutional strengthening and reform
is a continuous process and will be continued. Special efforts will be
made to bring about the following changes in the department through proper
infrastructure development, strengthening, re-organisation, training and
orientation of human resources:
- Transition from construction and regulatory to a service organisation.
- Orientation and motivation towards participatory approach in
development and management.
- Induce professionalism and accountability.
- Develop work norms and culture.
- Develop a system for addressing public grievances effectively and
- Standardisation of designs and specification.
- Ensuring quality assurance and safety of structures.
- Developing a simple and transparent financial management.
Encouraging research activities especially in evapo-retardants,
increasing or substantiating capacities of existing reservoirs, deficit
irrigation, cheaper techniques for pressure irrigation and volumetric
measurement, operation and management of canal systems etc.
Modernisation of the department for use of latest available techniques
likes GIS, MIS, Satellite Imageries, Computers etc.
The institutional reforms and restructuring will continue to have a
unified Water Resources Organisation and river basin units/sub-units
in the long term but the following institutional changes are considered
essential and urgent:
Formation of a Central Planning Organisation for integrated development
of surface and ground water resources including drainage and flood control
and inter-sectoral water allocations. Monitoring of implementation of
State Water Policy can also be done by this organisation.
Creating a separate organisation for Inter- State matters to regularly
watch the interest of the State, to keep vigilance over the activities of
neighboring states, to monitor water allocation and supplies in accordance
to the agreements, to carry out initial negotiations for suggested
interchanging of surplus water flowing down at a higher elevation and
continuous pursuance and follow up of pending Inter-state matters.
Formation of a special cell for identifying and recommending needed
administrative reforms based on the recommendations and conclusions of the
State Plan and other studies got carried out by the department.
CCreation of special cell for mobilization of funds which can create a
'project bank' to suit all types of financing agencies. The task of
mobilising private sector participation can also be assigned to this cell.
Creation of a separate cell for motivating farmers for formation of
WUAs and provide them necessary assistance. This cell can start
working in areas proposed to be covered in Rajasthan Water Sector
Restructuring of existing design wing to perform function of approval and
designs of medium and minor irrigation projects efficiently.
Strengthen and support the Panchayati Raj and Rural Development
Department, which now hold responsibility to maintain small irrigation
projects having CCA up-to 80 ha.
Creation of a special unit for monitoring, evaluation and review of
ongoing project progress and performance of existing projects.
The following legal support is considered essential:
New Acts for Groundwater Management and Control and Rajasthan Farmers
Participation in Management of Irrigation System will be introduced and
Flood Plain Zoning and Water Zoning of the State as per recommendations
of the State Water Plan will be completed by the year 2005.
Other existing laws and rules will be reviewed in light of the
recommendations of the State Water Policy and Plan and necessary
changes/modifications will be completed by the year 2001.
6.9 Monitoring, Evaluation and Review
Regular monitoring, analysis and evaluation, review and timely
refinement/change/modification is the key for success of any policy or
implementation programme. Suitable mechanism to monitor the State Water
Policy and implementation of action plan as presented will be developed.
In additional regular monitoring of ongoing projects to ensure time bound
construction and also evaluation of performance of existing projects
regarding their efficiency and environmental sustainability will be
The problem faced by the water sector
in the State are many, acute and serious. The implementation of the
envisioned action plan will enable the department to meet the challenges,
present in future, and achieve the objective of integrated, efficient,
environmentally and financially sustainable development and the management
of the scarce water resources of the State and at the same time ensure
optimal utilization of every drop of water, through water conservation,
increased distribution efficiency and use of water saving devices and
practices leading to an efficient, scientific, innovative, transparent and
responsive irrigation department. The water sector would then be able to
accelerate economic growth of the state.