foKfIr Hkwfe vokfIr

  1. Brief Note On Ravi,Beas And Sutlej System 
  2. Ravi Beas Waters
  3. Sutlej waters
  4. Bhakra Nangal Projects
  5. Nangal Dam
  6. Pandoh Dam
  7. Beas Sutlej Link
  8. Pong Dam
  9. Ranjit Sagar Dam



The Indus water Treaty, 1960 entitled India to use of the water of rivers Ravi, Beas & Sutlej. However, it was provided that full/unrestricted use of the waters of Rivers Sutlej, Beas and Ravi will be made by India only after 31st March 1970. With a view to fully utilize the waters of these three rivers, various schemes have been approved by the Govt. of India from time to time. Rajasthan shared the Bhakra Nangal Project both in irrigation and power. The Sutlej waters were distributed between Punjab and Rajasthan as per Bhakra Nangal Agreement 1959 with Rajasthan's entitlement as 15.22%. In case of Ravi and Beas water, an agreement was reached on 29th January, 1955 between the concerned States of Punjab, Pepsu and Rajasthan for allocation of surplus Ravi Beas waters, of 15.85 MAF after meeting the pre-partition requirement of 3.13 MAF worked out on the basis of mean supplies in series 1921-45 and allocated between the concerned states as under:

8.0 MAF
1.30 MAF
Jammu &Kashmir


It was also decided that in case of any variation in total supplies, the share shall be changed prorata on the above allocation subject to the condition that no change shall be made in the allocation for Kashmir state which shall remain as 0.65 MAF. On the above basis, Rajasthan's share works out to 52.6%.

In the year 1966 reorganization of Punjab took place and Haryana State came into being. Govt. of India issued a notification dated 24th March 1976 in exercise of the powers conferred by Sub Section (I) of Section 78 of the Punjab Reorganization Act, 1966 (31 of 1966) allocating the surplus waters between Punjab and Haryana as:

Out of water, which would have become available to the erstwhile State of Punjab on completion of the Beas Project (0.21 MAF where of is earmarked for Delhi water supply), the State of Haryana will get 3.5 MAF and the state of Punjab will get remaining quantity not exceeding 3.5 MAF. When further conservation works on the Ravi are completed, Punjab will get 3.5 MAF out of 7.2 MAF, which is the share of erstwhile state of Punjab. The remaining 0.08 MAF out of 7.2 MAF is recommended as additional quantum of water for delhi water supply for acceptance by both the govts of Punjab and Haryana.

The above allocation on completion of the Beas Project is based on the 1921-45 flow series corresponding to availability of 11.24 MAF in the Beas at Mandiplain (after allowing 1.61 MAF as pre partition uses) and the availability of 4.61 MAF in the Ravi at Madhoupur (after allowing for pre partition use and losses in Madhopur Beas Link)

The Haryana Govt. filed a suit in the Supreme Court praying interalia that a direction be issued to Punjab for expeditiously undertaking construction of Sutlej Yamuna Link canal in Punjab territory and for declaring that the notification of the Govt. of India allocating the water becoming available as a result of Beas Project issued on 24 th March 1976, is final and binding, and the Punjab Govt, also filed a suit in the supreme court challenging the competence of the central govt. to enact section 78 of the Punjab reorganization Act 1966 and notwithstanding this, questioning the notification issued under section 78 of the said Act.

Accordingly a tripartite agreement was entered into in the presence of the Prime Minister of India and chief Ministers of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan on 31st December, 1981 where under, on the basis of the flow series 1921-60 the total mean supply of Ravi Beas waters was estimated as 20.56 MAF. Deducting the prepartition uses of 3.13 MAF and transit losses in the Madhopur Beas Link of 0.26 MAF, the net surplus Ravi Beas waters was estimated as 17.17 MAF as against the corresponding figures of 15.85 MAF according to the flow series 1921-45 which was the basis of 1955 agreement. The surplus mean supplies of 17.17 MAF both flow and storage was agreed to be allocated as under:

Share of Punjab 4.22 MAF
Share of Haryana 3.50 MAF
Share of Rajasthan 8.60 MAF
Quantity earmarked for Delhi Water supply 0.20 MAF
Share of Jammu & Kashmir 0.65MAF

It was further provided that in case of any variation in the figures of 17.17 MAF in any year, the shares shall be changed prorata on the basis of the above revised allocation subject to the condition that the share of Jammu and Kashmir shall always remains fixed at 0.65 MAF as stipulated in the 1955 agreement. So also, the quantity of 0.20 MAF for Delhi water supply shall stand as already allocated.

Under the said agreement of 31st December 1981 an important provision was made to the effect that until such time as Rajasthan is in a position to utilize its full share, Punjab shall be free to utilise the water surplus to Rajasthan's requirements. As Rajasthan will soon be able to utilize its share Punjab shall make adequate alternative arrangements expeditiously for irrigation of its own lands by the time Rajasthan is in a position to utilize its full share. As a result, it is expected that during this transitional period when Rajasthan's requirements would not exceed 8.0 MAF, 4.82 MAF of water should be available to Punjab in a mean year when the availability is 17.17 MAF.

It was further provided that the suits filed by the Govts of Haryana and Punjab in the Supreme Court should be withdrawn without any reservation whatsoever but subject to the terms of the agreement of 31st December, 1981.

The legality and validity of the 1981 agreement was challenged by counsel for Punjab on diverse grounds. It was stated that the said agreement was not pursuant to section 78(i) of the Punjab Reorganization Act; even if it was under the said provision, it was not consistent there with and even though Rajasthan was not one of the successor States for the purpose of that provision it was made a party thereto thereby rendering the agreement outside the purview of the said provision. In the same breath it was submitted that since all the other successor States were not parties to the said agreement, the agreement had no efficacy in the eye of law.

An accord called "the Punjab settlement" was signed at New Delhi between the Prime Minister of India and Sant Harchand Singh Longowal, President of the Shiromani Akali Dal, on the 24th July, 1985, paragraph 9 where of bearing on the question of sharing of river waters reads as under :

9 Sharing of River waters

9.1 The farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan will continue to get water not less than what they are using from the Ravi Beas system as on 1.7.1985. Waters used for consumptive purposes will also remain unaffected. Quantum of usage claimed shall be verified by the Tribunal referred to in para 9.2 below :

9.2 The claim of Punjab and Haryana regarding the shares in their remaining waters shall be referred for adjudication to a Tribunal to be presided over by Supreme Court Judge. The decision of this Tribunal will be rendered within six months and would be binding on both parties. All legal and constitutional steps in this respect to be taken expeditiously;

9.3 The construction of S.Y.L. canal shall continue. The canal shall be completed by August 1986."


In pursuance of the above settlement, the President of India Promulgated an ordinance on 24th January 1986 called "The Ravi and Beas waters Tribunal" ordinance, 1986 section 3 of the ordinance conferred power on the central Govt. to constitute a single member Tribunal to be presided over by a person nominated by the Chief Justice of India from amongst persons who at the time of such nomination are judges of the Supreme Court for the verification and adjudication of the matter referred to in paragraph 9 of the Punjab settlement. Accordingly the Ravi Beas waters Tribunal was set up by notification dated 25th January, 1986 to be presided over by Shri Justice V.Balakrishna Eradi, a judge of the Supreme Court of India for the verification and adjudication of the matters referred to in reference no. F-15(2)85-IT of even date of the Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India. Later, on the 18th March, 1986 a bill to replace the aforesaid ordinance was also introduced in Parliament (Lok Sabha).

The Central Govt. on 2nd April, 1986 constitute the Tribunal as under :


1. Shri Justice V.Balakrishna Eradi Chairman
Judge of the Supreme Court.  
2. Shri Justice A.M. Ahmadi, Member
Judge of Gujrat High Court.  
3. Shri Justice P.C. Balkrishna Menon, Member
Judge Kerala High Court.  

The Head quarter of the Tribunal was fixed at New Delhi.

The terms of reference referred to the said Tribunal for verification and adjudication are those which are given in para 9.1 and 9.2 of "Punjab Settlement."

The Tribunal was expected to submit its report within a period of six months from 2nd April 1986, the date of reference.

The Tribunal on 30th January, 1987 gave their conclusions on the two points referred to them as under :

I. Re. : Item No.1 of the Reference (Paragraph 9.1 of the Punjab Settlement)
The result of varification is :

The quantum of water used by the farmers and other consumptive uses of the three party states as on 1st July, 1985 was as under :

Punjab : 3.106 MAF (This is inclusive of 0.352 MAF of permissive use allowed by Rajasthan under clause (ii) of 1981 Agreement and subject there to by is exclusive of the pre partition use of 1.98 MAF as well as 0.32 MAF in Shah Nehar).

Haryana : 1.620 MAF.

Rajasthan : 4.985 MAF (This figures is exclusive of the pre partition use of 1.11 MAF).

II Re: Item no. 2 of the Reference (Paragraph 9.2 of the Punjab Settlement).
On adjudication of the claims of Punjab and Haryana regarding the shares in their remaining waters, allocation is as under :

Punjab : 5.00 MAF

Haryana : 3.83 MAF.

The Tribunal directed that in the event of fluctuations in the availability of water in the Ravi Beas system in any particular year, the share of the aforesaid two States shall be increased or decreased prorata on the above basis.

Note : The shares of Rajasthan in the surplus waters fixed at 8.60 MAF and that of Delhi water supply fixed at 0.20 MAF under the 1981 agreement shall remain unaffected. But the demand of Delhi Administration for allocation of additional supply over the existing use of 0.2 MAF is rejected as falling outside the scope of the "Reference to Tribunal.

The report of this Tribunal is yet to be implemented, Rajasthan also moves an application seeking explanation and guidance regarding the report of this Ravi Beas waters Tribunal, 1987.

Pre partition utilization

Ravi Beas and Sutlej are three Eastern Rivers of Indus basin, which have been allocated to India under the Indus water Treaty of 1960 signed between India and Pakistan. The western rivers of Chenab, Jehlum, and Sindh (Indus Main) have been allocated to Pakistan with some nominal use in India.

1. Sutlej river

On this river, Headworks at five places existed before partition in 1947. These were mainly for diversion of river flow for pernnial and non-pernnial irrigation, depending upon available flow supplies. There was no storage and therefore most of the monsoon's flow escaped lower down. The five headworks were as under :

(a) Rupar Headworks for feeding Sirhind Canal and Bist Doab Canal.

(b) Ferozepur headworks downstream of confluence of Sutlej and Beas.

(c) Sulemanki Headworks.

(d) Islam Headworks and

(e) Panjnad Headworks.

Through Rupar Headworks, partially whole of the pernnial river flow was utilized by the canal taking off from this place. The escape during winter season and regeneration below Rupar were however exclusively used by Bikaner Canal, in addition to its Beas share. Only monsoon flows escaped lower down which were later on harnessed by the construction of Bhakra Dam.

Ferozepur Headworks is situated just at the Indo-Pakistan Border and used to feed Dipalpur Canal on Right flank (now lying in Pakistan). This has become redundant after partition.

On the left flank there were two canals viz. Eastern Canal in Punjab and Gang Canal mainly meant for use in Bikaner State. Eastern Canal was a non-perennial Canal depended only on consoon supplies while Bikaner Canal was perennial canal. The full authorized discharge capacity of Eastern canal and Bikaner Canal was 3320 Cs. and 2720 Cs. respectively. The distribution was governed by tripartite agreement of 1920 and recommendation of a Committee headed by Shri Anderson made in 1935. The canals taking off from Ferozepur headworks mainly depended on supplies of river Beas and also regeneration in river Sutlej (both perennial and non perennial). The pre partition use of Bikaner Canal and Eastern Canal was fixed as 1.110 MAF and 0.494 MAF annually, respectively. The other three headworks viz. Sulemanki Headworks, Islam Headwork and Panjnad Headworks lie in Pakistan and are not relevant to India now.

2. Ravi River

On this river, Madhopur Headworks were constructed in 1902 to feed the Upper Bari Doab Canal (also known as Central Bari Doab Canal). This was a diversion work meant to use the river flow and no storage existed. Part of the command was situated in India and part in Pakistan. The pre partition utilization in India (Punjab) as worked out by Ministry of Irrigation and Power was 1.476 MAF.

3- Beas River

Prior to partition, there was no irrigation structure on this river and the flow was utilized beyond its confluence with Sutlej throgh Ferozepur head works on Sutlej. Although the Ferozepur Headworks are situated on Sutlej, but the actural utilization from it was that of Beas river. Sutlej pre-partition utilisation through Rupar haedworks was amulgamated with Bhakra Nangal project and it is now governed by a separate agreement known as Bhakra Nangal Agreement of 1959.

Total prepartition utilisation:

The total prepartition utilisation based on average of 10 Year (1936-46) on Ravi Beas was as under;


Name of work/canal
Prepartition utilisation
Eastern Canal (Punjab)
Bikaner Canal (Rajasthan)
(a)Total Prepartition utilisation of Beas river
Upper Bari Doab /canal ( Punjab)
Kashmir Canal (J&K)
(b)Total Prepartition utilisation of Ravi river
Grand total (Beas & Ravi)

Rajasthan is getting water from Ravi Beas and Sutlej system at the following contact/control points:

Ravi Beas Waters

1- Bikaner Canal (Gang Canal)

The Gang Canal was constructed in 1920-26 as a part of the Sutlej Valley Project which was undertaken jointly by the Govt. of Punjab, the State of Bhawalpur and the State of Bikaner. The authorized full supply discharge of the Gang Canal was kept 2144 Cs.

Soon after the constrction of Bikaner Canal was started, it was felt that some additional supplies would be available during Kharif period and therefore two non-perennial channels were added. The authorised full supply discharge of canal was increased to 2720 Cs.

After partition the Sutlej valley component was completely omitted in calculating the share to be delivered to Pakistan and as such some additional quantity of water became available for utilisation in Indian Canals i.e. Bikaner canal and Eastern Canal.

In 1960 the Indo Pakistan Treaty came into force and according to this treaty,the share of Pakistan Canals to be delivered below Ferozepur included the Sutlej component also . The Gang Canal was therefore reduced to its pre partition allocation only.

Thus after the signing of Indus Treaty, the Sutlej component which consisted mainly of losses and gains between Ropar and Ferozepur was included in the distributable pool and was no longer available to Gang Canal.

The Gang Canal (AFSQ 2720 Cs. Perennial) was getting supplies from Ferozepur Headworks upto 1955. After the construction of Harike Barrage during 1955, the Bikaner Canal is getting supplies partially through Ferozepur Headworks and through Ferozpur Feeder. The Bikaner Canal has its pre partition share of 1.11 MAF annually.

2- Indira Gandhi Nehar Feeder (Rajastan Feeder)

After the construction of Harike Barrage, Rajasthan is getting its Ravi Beas waters through Indira Gandhi Feeder (which started irrigation on a non perennial basis in 1961 and such irrigation has been gradually increasing as more areas are brought under command) having full supply discharge of 18500 Cs.

As per 1981 agreement, Rajasthan is entitled to use 8.0 MAF out of surplus Ravi Beas waters against 8.60 MAF share quota. Now Rajasthan is in a position to use its full share 8.6 MAF, the matter has been taken up with the Punjab authorities as well as with BBMB, for restoring its 0.6 MAF water presently being utilised by Punjab.

Sutlej waters

According to clause 9(2) of the Bhakra Nangal Agrteement of 13.1.1959, the "shares of the parties in the stored water supplies shall be as under:

Punjab(including Haryana) 84.78 %
Rajasthan 15.22 %

With the term "stored water supply" having been defined vide clause 1 (13.A) as the "the supply stored in the Bhakra Reservoir out of water of the river Sutlej and its tributaries above Bhakra Dam". This clause categorically entitles Rajasthan to a 15.22% share in all releases made at the Bhakra Dam for all periods. The overall share entitlement of Rajasthan at its various contact points at Punjab/Rajasthan borders would thus aggregate to 15.22% less prorata absorption between the Bhakra Dam and the border contact points concerned.

The Total distributary head share of 2530 Cs. of Rajasthan being fixed with corresponding absorption losses as 190 Cs. (as per appendix 'C' of the Bhakra Nangal Agreement). is made up of the following indivisual shares:

1- Share at tail Sirhind Feeder
(for Sadul & Karnisingh Branches)
1592 Cs.
2- Share from Jandwala system 220 Cs.
3- Share from South Ghaggar system 260 Cs.
4- Share from Jasana System 108 Cs.
5- Share from Amarsing Sub Br. system 350 Cs.
2530 Cs.

Rajasthan via Punjab

As per Bhakra Nangal Agreement 1959, the Sadul and Karnisingh Branches of Rajashtan were to receive a supply of 1610 Cs. through Bhakra Main Line and Bhakra Main Branch from river Sutlej. After the construction of Sirhind Feeder, the supplies to above branches of Rajasthan have been switched over to Sirhind Feeder out of Punjab share of Ravi Beas waters as per adhoc arrangement thus sparing an equivalent Bhakra supply for use at Ropar by Punjab.

Punjab passed short, erratic and fluctuating supplies to Rajasthan through tail Sirhind Feeder . To overcome this difficulty, the Govt. of Rajasthan has arranged the construction of Link channel in Haryana connecting the Sirhind Feeder Rajasthan Feeder to supplement erratic supplies received at Tail Sirhind Feeder . Now this link is being used to augment Bhakra areas by some supplies of Ravi Beas waters through Indira Gandhi Feeder.

In the 71st meeting of the Bhakra Control Board held on 6th January, 1961, the request of Rajasthan Govt. for the reshuffling of discharges of certain channels of the Bhakra Canal system was accepted subject to the condition that the funds for this work were provided by the Chief Engineer, Irrigation Rajasthan. The proposal was to modify the discharges of the following channels to meet the requirement of Rajasthan Govt. The overall share was to remain the same :

Name of Channel
Designed dischargs (Cs.)
Proposed discharge (Cs.)
Tail Bhakra Main Branch
Jandwala distributary
Southern Ghaggar Canal
Baruwalii distributary
Kishangarh Link
2560 Cs.

Rajasthan's share of Bhakra waters are delivered at one Contact Point via Punjab and 4 contact points via Haryana. Rajasthan is entitled to a perennial discharge of 950 Cs. from Haryana Contact Points.

As per Punjab Re-organization Act, 1966 the operation of Bhakra Main Line and various canal sytems are to be administered by the Bhakra Management Board and consequently the allocation in facour of each State are made by the Irrigation Wing of Bhakra Management Board. Inspite of this clear out provision, the supplies are being controlled and regulated by the States in which the carrying channels are located.

During the meeting of Inter State Problems between Rajasthan and Haryana held on 12th October, 1968 at Jaipur, the following decisions were taken :

Regarding shortages received by Rajasthan at Haryana Contact Points, it was decided that :

(I) Previous 10 days shortages will be supplemented during the present 10 days period
(II) The chief Engineer, Haryana will issue instructions to his field officers for strictly following rotation programmes issued by the Chief Engineer, Haryana so that erratic supplies can be controlled and
(III)The Rajasthan State Indents will be honored channel wise and should be met with accordingly at the contact points and not on a total basis because excess in one channel cannot supplement the shortages in other channel.

So, the Bhakra channels of Rajasthan are all perennial and are supplied water through five contact points the authorised discharge through each contact point is as follows :

Sadul & Karnisingh Branch
1610 Cs.
Ist contact point.
Tail Jandwala.
225 Cs.
2nd contact point
South Ghaggar Canal
266 Cs.
3rd contact point
Barruwali disty. (Jasana system)
106 Cs.
4th contact point
Tail Dishangarh sub Branch (Amar Singh system)
355 Cs.
5th contact point
2562 Cs.


The supplies in Ist contact point are made via Punjab through tail Sirhind Feeder and the other four contact points are supplied water via Haryana.

Thus the authorised discharge available to Rajasthan at the five contact points in Bhakra System is as under:

(a) At the tail of Bhakra Main Branch where the Sadul and Karnisingh Branches of Rajasthan take off:

These two branches were origninally designed for a total discharge of 1699 Cs. but to certain internal adjustments within Rajasthan the Bhakra Control Board in its 71st meeting approved the reduction of the discharge to 1610 Cs. At present, these two branches are being fed by the Punjab from the sirhind Feeder instead of from the Bhakra Main Branch to which they were originally attached.

(b) The Khara Branch which takes off from the tail of the Jandwali distributary of Haryana:

This channel has a discharge capacity of 225Cs.

(c) The South Ghaggar Sub Branch which is fed from the tail of Ottu Feeder taking off from the Bhakra Main Branch.

The first half of the Ghaggar Sub-branch lies in Haryana and the authorised discharge at Rajasthan border has been fixed at 266Cs. in the 71st meeting of the Bhakra Control Board.

(d) The Amar Singh Sub Branch which takes from the tail of the Kishangarh Branch.

This is feed by the Fatehabad branch of Haryana. The authorised discharge of Amarsingh Sub Branch is 355 Cs.

(e) The Jasana distributary which is fed by the Baruwali distributary of Haryana.

This channel has authorised discharge of 106 Cs.

As per the Indus Water Treaty concluded between India and Pakistan in the year 1960, three eastern rivers namely the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi,came to the exclusive share of India.Bhakra Dam constructed across the Sutlej, controlled its water for irrigation and power. The Beas was next tackled with the Ravi following soon after. The Bhakra Nangal and Beas Projects were originally the joint ventures of erstwhile states of Punjab and Rajasthan.

Bhakra Nangal Projects

Bhakra DamBhakra Dam

Bhakra Dam is a majestic monument across river Sutlej. Its construction was taken up first after independence, for the uplift and welfare of the people of Northern Region. The construction of this project was started in the year 1948 and was completed in 1963 . It is 740 ft. high above the deepest foundation as straight concrete dam being more than three times the height of Qutab Minar. Bhakra Dam is the highest Concrete Gravity dam in Asia and Second Highest in the world.

The water stored at Bhakra has a tremendous potential of generating hydroelectric power. There are two power houses namely Left Bank Power Plant and Right Bank Power Plant.

The power houses are connected on either side by underground cable galleries with the switch yard from where transmission lined take off.

The Salient features of Bhakra Dam and Power houses are as below.

Bhakra Dam

Total cost of the Project Rs. 245.28 crore
Type of Dam Concrete straight gravity
Height above the deepest foundation 225.55 metres (740 feet)
Height above river bed 167.64 metres (550 feet)
Length at top 518.16 metres (1700 feet)
Width at top 9.14 metres (30 feet)
Length at bottom 99 metres (325 feet)
Width at base 190.5 metres (625 feet)
Elevation at top of dam above mean sea level 518.16 metres (1700 feet)
Steel used 101600 tonnes (100000 tons)


Catchment area 56980 Sq. kilometres.
Normal reservoir level EL. 512.06 meters (EL.1680 faet)
Dead storage level EL.445.62 meters.
New area irrigated 60 lakh acres.
Area of reservoir. 162.48 sq. kilometres (62.78 sq.miles)
Length of reservoir. 96.56 kilometres.
Live storage capacity at EL.1680 ft. 6911 million cum (5.60 MAF)
Gross storage capacity at EL.1680 ft. 9340 million cum (7.57 MAF)
Dead storage capacity 2430 million cum (1.97 MAF)

River Outlets & Flood Control Gates

Number of outlets. 16 in two tiers of 8 dach at EL.1320 & EL.1420
Size of outlets 2.64 m x 2.64 m (8.67 ft. x 8.67 ft.)
Shape of outlets Horseshoe shape
Maximum discharge per outlet  
Outlets at EL.402.33 meters (EL.1320 ft.) 187.97 cumecs (6638 cusecs)
Outlets at EL.432.80 meters (EL.1420 ft.) 160.10 cumecs (5656 cusecs)
Number and sizw of flood control gates. 4 nos. 15.24m x 14.5m (50 ft. x 47.5ft.)
Maximum design discharge through gates. 5587 cumecs (1997300 cusecs)

Bhakra Power Plants

Number of power houses 2
Installed capacity of left bank power plant 450 MW - 5 units of 90 MW each
Increased capacity of left bank power plant by uprating the machines. 540 MW - 5 units of 108 MW each
Installed capacity of right bank power plant. 600 MW - 5 units of 120 MW each
Increased capacity of right bank power plant Uprated to 660 MW - 5 units of 132 MW each
Present capacity by further uprating the machines. 735 MW - 3 units of 157 MW each & 2 units of 132 MW each
Planned uprated capacity. 785 MW - 5 units of 157 MW.

Nangal Dam

Nangal Dam situated about 13 Kms. Downstream of Bhakra Dam, is 29m (95 ft.) high & comprises 26 bays of 9.14m (30 ft.) each. It is designed to pass a flood 9910 cumecs (350000 cusecs) water. Dam diverts the water of river Sutlej into Nangal Hydel Channel & Anandpur Sahib Hydel Channel for power generation and irrigation purpose. Nangal Pond acts as a balancing reservoir to smoothen out the diurnal variation in releases from the Bhakra Power Plants.

Nangal Hydel Channel is a lined channel taking off from the left bank of river Sutlej just above the Nangal Dam. The natural fall available along the channel is utilised at Ganguwal and Kotla for generating power.

Anandpur Saheb Hydel Channel takes off from nangal Barrage and along the left bank of river Sutlej almost parallel to and on the left side of the Nangal Hydel Channel. It is 33 Kms. Long with a discharging capacity of 10150 Cs. It has two power houses at Ganguwal and at Kotla.

Salient Features of Nangal Dam

Nangal Dam

Height 29 meters (95 ft.)
Length 304.8 meters (1000 ft.)

Nangal Hydel Channel

Length of Nangal Hydel Channel 64.5 kilometers (40 miles)
Discharge 354 cumecs (12500 cusecs)

Power Houses on Nangal Hydel Channel

Number of power houses 2
Total installed capacity of each power house. 77 MW (2units of 24 MW each & one unit of 29 MW)
Head of water 28.35 meters (93 ft.)
Uprating achieved. 3.43 MW at Ganguwal.

Beas Project Unit - I

Pandoh Dam

Pandoh Dam is a diversion dam of the River Beas at Pandoh situated about 21 Kms. Upstream of town of Mandi in Himachal Pradesh on Mandi Kullu Road. It is a zoned earth-cum-rockfill dam 76.20m(250 ft.)high above the deepest foundation. A chute spillway with flip bucket for maximum design outflow of 350000 cs. has been provided on left abutment. There are five bays in which high pressure top seal type radial gates have been installed for regulating flow of water. Each gate is independently operated by 200 tonnes capacity cylindrical hydraulic hoists.

Salient Features Of Pandoh Dam :

Total cost of Unit - I Rs. 449.17 crore.

Pandoh Dam

Type of dam Earth-cum-rockfill
Height above river bed 61 meters (200 ft.)
Height above deepest foundation 76.2 meters (250 ft.)
Elevation at top of dam EL.899.16 meters (EL.2950 ft.)
Length at top 255 meters (835 ft.)
Width at base. 268.22 meters (880 ft.)
Width at top 12.19 meters (40 ft.)


Maximum reservoir level EL.896.42 meters (EL.2941 ft.)
Normal reservoir level EL.883.92 meters (EL.2900 ft.)
Minimum reservoir level EL.883.92 meters (EL.2900 ft.)
Gross storage capacity 4100 hectare meters (33240 acre ft.)
Live storage capacity at EL.2941 ft. 1855.98 hectare meters (15.039 acre ft.)


Type Orifice type gates chute
Overall width at crest 74 meters (242.8 ft.)
Clear waterway at crest 60 meters (196.85 ft.)
Radial gates 5 No. 12m x 13m (39.375 ft. x 42.65 ft.) each
Crest elevation EL. 874.78 meters (EL.2870 ft.)
Maximum outflow 9939 cumecs (351000 cusecs)
Length of chute 88.54 meters (290.5 ft.)
Slope of chute. 2.5 : 1

Beas Sutlej Link

Beas Sutlej Link Project is the largest tunnelling project in the country. It comprises of 13.1 Kms. Tunnel of 25 ft. dia meters, through which water is taken from Pandoh reservoir upto the Baggi Control Works. This tunnel is capable of carrying 9500 cs. water. The tunnel is concrete lined throughout its length and reinforced in reaches where the rock cover is inadequate. The construction of tunnel involved excavation of over 1.31 million cyd. of rock and 0.55 million cyd. of concrete lining.

Control works have been provided at the exit point of the Pandoh Baggi Tunnel for regulation of outflows from Pandoh Reservoir to meet the fluctuating demands of Dehar Power Plant. A power Plant has also been proposed at Baggi.

Sundernagar Hydel Channel, taking off from the exist portal of Pandoh Baggi Tunnel and outfalls into Sundernagar Balancing Reservoir, is 11.8 km. long concrete lined hydel channel. It has got a carrying capacity of 9000 cs. and a silt ejector has also been provided at RD.1364 m. where natural outfall channel is available for discharge of silt laden waters. The channel has been lined with cement concrete.

A Balancing Reservoir with a live storage capacity of 3000 acre ft. has been constructed at tail of the hydel channel to provide balancing storage to take care of the variation between the supply required for the actual load on Dehar power Plant and discharge in water conductor system. Sundernagar Balancing Reservoir is situated near Sundernagar. An inlet type automatic bell mouth syphon escape with hood over the intake crest has been provided to safe guard the embankments from being overtopped by the water resulting from any contingency, when Dehar Power Plant rejects load suddenly at a time when the reservoir is already full and the hydel channel continues to flow into it.

The last link of the Beas Project Link comprises of Sundernagar Sutled Tunnel, which is 12.35 kilometers long power tunnel with 28 ft. diameter and having carrying capacity of 14250 cs. The tunnel starts from Sundernagar Balancing Reservoir and terminates into surge shaft from where three penstock headers fan out. The tunnel has been concrete lined thoughout its entire length, reinforced in reaches where the rock is poor or where the rock cover is inadequate.

Dehar Power Plant

The Dehar Power Plant is located on the right bank of river Sutlej a little upstream of Slapper bridge on National Highhway N0.21 There are six generating units of 165 MW each. The water coming out of Sundernagar Sutlej Tunnel enters into R.C.C. Surge shaft. A bypass Tunnel taking off from the surge shaft riser has been provided to bypass surplus water not required by Dehar Power Plant and to contribute water to surge shaft in the case of down surge. At the sxit end of the Sundernagar Sutlej Tunnel, the tunnel has been trifurcated into 8 ft. diameter steel outlet pipes. Each outlet pipe has been further transitioned into rectangular conduits to accomodate the gates. After generating power at Dahar Power plant, the Beas water is left into river Sutlej. Thus, Beas water meets with the river water at this point and that is why the system is called Beas Sutlej Link.

Salient Features Of Beas Sutlej Link

Pandoh Baggi Tunnel

Diameter 7.62 metres (25 feet)
Leght 13.1 kilometres (8.14 miles)
Capacity 254.85 cumecs (9000 cusecs)
Maximum 5.59 m/sec (18.34 ft./sec)

Baggi Control Works

N0. of conduits 4
Size of conduits 2.67mx4.27 m (8.75 ft.x 14ft.)
No. of gates in each conduit One fixed wheel & one side type
Size of each gate 2.67 mx 4.27m (8.75 ft.x 14 ft.)
Length of stilling basin 70.1 metres (229.98 feet)

Sundernagar Hydel Channel

Length 11.8 Kilometres (7.33 miles)
Bed width 9.45 metres (31 feet)
Maximum depth 6.26 metres (20.53 feet)
Side slope 1.5:1
Bed slope 1 in 6666
Average Velocity 1.84 m/sec (6.05 ft/sec)

Sundernagar Balancing Reservior

Capacity 370 hactare metres (3000 acre feet)
Maximum height of embankment 21.34 (70 feet)
Lenght of reservoir 21.30 metres (6989 feet)
Maximum width of reservoir 449.88 metres (1476)
Maximum reservoir level EL. 842.47 metres (EL. 2764 feet)
Top of embankment EL. 844.9 metres (EL. 2772 feet)
Capacity of Syphon escape 328.48 cumecs (11600 cusecs)

Sundernagar Sutlej Tunnel

Diameter 8.53 metres (28 feet)
Length 12.35 kilometres (7.67 miles)
Capacity 403.52 cumecs (14250 cusecs)
Maximum velocity 7.06 m/sec (23.15 ft/sec)

Bypass Tunnel & Chute

Diameter of tunnel 6.71 metres (22 feet)
Length of tunnel 296.8 metres (973.5 feet)
Length of chute 533.4 metres (1750 feet)
Width of chute Varies from 14.63 metres (4 feet) t0 10.35 metres (34 feet)
N0. of outlet conduits 3
Type of gate in each conduit One fixed wheel and one radial type

Surge Shaft

Type Underground differntal
Diameter of main shaft 22.86 metres (75 feet)
Diameter of riser shaft 7.62 meters (25 feet)
Height 125.0 metres (410.1 feet)

Dehar Power Plant

N0. of units 6
Type of turbine Vertical shaft, Francis type
Installed capacity 165 MW x 6 = 990 MW
Designed head 320 metres (1050 feet)
No. of penstock headers 3
Diameter of penstock header 4.88 metres (16feet)
N0. of penstock branches 6
Diameter of penstock branches) 3.35 metres (11 feet)

Pong Dam

Pong Dam was primarily envisaged for meeting the irrigation water requirements of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. But presently, it is being used for power generation too. The Dam is located at Pong across river Beas in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. It is the highest earth fill Dam so far constructed in the country. The number of instruments of different types have been embedded in the body of dam to observe its behaviours. Rajasthan draws its maximum share of water from Pong Dam.

Five concrete lined tunnels, were constructed for river diversion during construction satge. After serving their function as diversion tunnels two of these tunnels have been converted into outlets for controlled irrigation releases and the other three are used as penstocks. Each penstock tunnel has been provided with an emergency gate, operated from the hoist structures, located at top of the dam.

A chute spillway has been provided for passing the flood which is located on the left abutment of the dam. The spillway caters with maximum discharge of 437000 cs. Water is led to ogee shaped crest through an approach channel and controlled by six number radial gates which are operated by electrically driven mechanical hoists with provision for operation by diesel engines in case of power failure.

Pong Power Plant is a reinforced concrete framed structure, located in the stilling basin downstream of penstock tunnels . The power plant has an installed capacity of 360 MW having six units of 60 MW each. Uprating of each unit from 60 MW to 66 MW has been planned.

Salient Features Of Pong Dam

Total cost of Unit-II Rs. 325. 88 crore

Type of dam Earth core gravel shell
Elevation at top of dam EL. 435. 86 metres (EL. 1430 feet)
Free board (above max. RWL) 2.74 metres (9 feet)
Maximum height of dam above deepest foundation level 132.59 metres (435 feet)
Crest length 1950.7 metres (6400 feet)
Width at crest 13.72 metres (45)
Maximum width at base (excluding toe weights) 610 metres (2000 feet)


Catchment area 12560 sq. kilometres (4850 sq. miles)
Maximum reservoir level EL 433.12 metres (EL 1421 feet)
Normal reservoir level EL 426.72 meters (EL 1400 feet)
Dead storage level EL. 384.05 meters (EL.1260 feet)
Gross storage capacity 8570 million cum. (6.95 MAF)
Live storage capacity 7290 million cum (5.91 MAF)
Maximum reservoir depth 97.84 metres (321 feet)
Reservoir length 41.8 kilometres

Outlet Works

N0. of outlet tunnels 2
N0. of outlets 4 (two in each tunnel)
Types of gates Slide gates
Size of gates 2.13 mx 3.2 (7ft.x10.5 ft)
Maximum head 95.71 metres (314.0 feet)
Minimum head 46.7 metres (153.3 feet)
Maximum discharge through each outlet 252.6 cumecs (8925 cusecs)
Minimum discharge through each outlet 182.5 cumecs (6450 cusecs)


Type of spillway Overflow gated chute
Overall width at crest 102.11 meters (335 feet)
Spillway gates Six radial gates 14.48 m x 12.344m ( 47.5 ft. x 40.5 ft.) each
Maximum outflow through gates 12375 cumecs ( 437000 cusecs)
Length of spillway chute 655.62 meters (2151 feet)
Length of stilling basin 99.06 meters (325 feet)
Crest elevation 416.05 meters (1365 feet)
Clear water way at crest 86.9 meters (285 feet)


N0. of penstock heads 3
Maximum discharge through each header 215.2 cumecs (7600 cusecs)
Diameter of each penstock head 7.28 meters (23.88 feet)
Diameter of each penstock branch 5.025 meters (16.486feet)

Power Plant

Type of turbine Vertical shaft, Francis type
Speed 166.7 R.P.M.
Head variation 47.85 meters to 95.1 meters (157 feet to 312 feet)
N0. of units 6
Installed capacity 60 MW x6 = 360 MW
Planned uprating capacity 66 MW x6 =396 MW.

Ranjit Sagar Dam

Ranjit Sagar Dam (Thein dam) is a gigantic Multipurpose River valley Project constructed on river Ravi, 24 kms. Upstream of Madhopur Headworks. The construction of Ranjit Sagar Dam is a part of the total plan for the utilization of the water of three eastern rivers namely Sutlej, Beas and Ravi for irrigation and Power generation. Ranjit Sagar Dam is located in a gorge section of river Ravi near village. Thein in J&K state, in seismically active zone of Himalayas constituting the Shivalik range. The Project is an embodiment of inter state relationship and co-operation amongst the States of Punjab, J&K and Himachal Pradesh. An inter state agreement between these States was signed in 1979 thereby giving the go-ahead for the execution of the Project.

Project Profile

The Project comprises of the following main components:-

  • 160 m. high, earth core-cum gravel shell, Dam involving 15.2 million cum of fill placement, which makes it the highest dam of this type in India.
  • 600 M.W. Power Plant with 4 units of 150 M.W. each with second biggest Hyderoturbine in India.
  • Concrete Spillway involving 26.00 million cum of rock excavation (the maximum for any spillway in the country) and about 1.00 million cum of concrete with 7 N0. radial gates each of size 15.57 m. x. 17.20 m.
  • 12 m dia, Highly reinforced, 4 N0. diversion/power-cum-irrigation tunnels klnown as T-1, T-2, P-1 and P-2 with an aggregate length of about 4 km.
  • 9 N0. deep vertical shafts with maximum depth of 126 m for intake structure, hoists and emergency gates.
  • 1km long Penstock Headers with 8.5 m dia, which is also the largest in India.
  • A network of nearly 6 km of galleries under dam foundation, spillway and left and right abutments of the dam. The dam foundation gallery under the earth dam has been provided for the first time in India.
  • Aeration gallery has been provided on the Spillway slope to prevent damage due to cavitation as the velocity of water flow shall be of the order of 162 km per hour.
  • Ranjit Sagar lake named after Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the renowned Ruler of Punjab, has been formed upstream of the dam extending upto 22 km with maximum width of 5 km and a depth of 130 m.

Execution Of The Project

All the major works of the Project have been executed departmentally. The storage of water in the reservoir was started on 15.2.99 and the generation of power was started from August, 2000.


At june, 2000 price level, the cost works out to be Rs. 3800 crore.


The Project will generate 2100 million units of power annually and additional irrigation potential of 3.48 lakh hectares of land. This will further enhance industrial and agricultural production worth Rs. 550.00 crore per annum. the annual revenue receipt on account of sale of energy will be approximately Rs. 500.00 crore. Development of fisheries, industrial development, flood control,reclamation of land along with the river bed, development of tourism facilities, socioeconomic uplift of the people of te area etc. are the other major benefits of the Project.

Unique Features Of The Project

* The Ranjit Sagar Dam is the highest earth core-cum-gravel shell dam in India.
* The Power Plant has the second biggest Hydro-Turbine in India.
* The Project has the largest dia. Penstock in India.
* The foundation gallary under the Rockfill Dam has been provided for the first time in India.

Salient Features Of The Project

Ranjit Sagar Reservoir

Catchment area 6086 sq. km
Reservoir area 87.00 sq. km.
Gross Storage capacity 3280 million cum
Live storage capacity 2344 million cum


Type Earth core-cum-gravel shell dam
Top level EL 540.00 m
Maximum height of dam 160.00 m.
Length at Top 617.00 m.
Width at top 14.00 m
Maximum width at baxe 669.2 m
Normal reservoir level 527.91 m.


Clear water-way 109 m.
Crest level EL 511 .7 m.
Maximum outflow 24637 cumecs
Spillway design flood 20678 cumecs


No. of Penstock Headers
N0. of Penstock Branches
Dia of each Penstock Header
8.5 m.
Dia of each Penstock Branches
5.17 m.

Power Plant

Type of turbines Vertical Shaft Francis
Maximum net head 121.9 m.
Minimum net head 76.0 m.


Nodal Officer : Er Inderjeet Bishnoi, Email :, Phone No. : 0141-2702672 Ext. 229